Adversarial internet


 involving or characterized by conflict  opposition antagonism;

involving antagonistic elements

involving sides who oppose each other;

opposing parties or interests

AlgorithmAlgorithm (information disorder) is a fixed series of steps that a computer performs in order to solve a problem or complete a task.

Social media platforms use algorithms to filter and prioritize content for each individual user based on various indicators, such as their viewing behavior and content preferences.

Disinformation that is designed to provoke an emotional reaction can flourish in these spaces when algorithms detect that a user is more likely to engage with or react to similar content.

Anti-social networkingAn online community of people specifying why certain people are your enemies.
AppsA mobile app, short for mobile application or just app, is application software designed for a specific purpose (e.g. entertainment, shopping, etc.), downloaded and used on computers depending on their operating system. (e.g. portable devices such as tablets, Smartphones, etc.)
Artificial intelligence


Artificial intelligence (AI) has become an area of strategic importance and a key driver of economic development.

It can bring solutions to many societal challenges from treating diseases to minimising the environmental impact of farming. However, socio-economic, legal and ethical impacts have to be carefully addressed Artificial intelligence (AI) describes computer programs that are “trained” to solve problems that would normally be difficult for a computer to solve.

These programs “learn” from data parsed through them, adapting methods and responses in a way that will maximize accuracy. As disinformation grows in its scope and sophistication, some look to AI as a way to effectively detect and moderate concerning content. AI also contributes to the problem, automating the processes that enable the creation of more persuasive manipulations of visual imagery, and enabling disinformation campaigns that can be targeted and personalized much more efficiently.

Audiovisual media services


Services that are under the editorial responsibility of a media service provider and the principal purpose of which is the provision of programmes, in order to inform, entertain or educate the general public by electronic communications networks. Audiovisual media services are either TV programs or audiovisual media services on demand.


The provision of assurance regarding the claimed identity of a person or data.Electronic authentication is the process of confirming a person/entity’s identity.

The confirmation of the alleged identity of a person or of data.

AuthenticityA fundamental component of information security, the quality or condition of being trustworthy or genuine.
AutomationAutomation (information disorder) is the process of designing a ‘machine’ to complete a task with little or no human direction.

It takes tasks that would be time-consuming for humans to complete and turns them into tasks that are completed quickly and almost effortlessly. For example, it is possible to automate the process of sending a tweet, so a human doesn’t have to actively click ‘publish’. Automation processes are the backbone of techniques used to effectively ‘manufacture’ the amplification of disinformation.



Translated from Sanskrit as incarnationit is the graphical representation of the user or his/her character in a three-dimensional or two­dimensional (icon) form.
Big Data


A phenomenon resulting from 3 factors, commonly referred to as the ‘3 Vs’ (Volume, Variety and Velocity), describing the fact that traditional data-handling and analysing technologies are increasingly challenged by the growth in:

volume of data collected and stored, the variety of these data in terms of structure and formats (Excel spreadsheet data vs videos uploaded to Youtube)

velocity (more and more data being generated due to Web 2.0 possibilities.

Every minute the world generates 1.7 million billion bytes of data, equivalent to 360,000 standard DVDs. More digitised data was created in the last two years than in the rest of human history. This trend and the mountains of data it produces is what we call “Big data”. The big data sector is growing at a rate of 40% a year.

Handling big data requires increased technological capacity, new tools and new skills.

Blackbox problemThe black box problem usually renders us unable to understand how algorithms work
BlacklistA list containing email addresses or IP addresses of suspected spammers. Blacklists are sometimes used to reject incoming mail at the server level before the email reaches the recipient.


 is a public ledger consisting of all transactions taken place across a peer-to-peer network.

It is a data structure consisting of linked blocks of data, e.g. confirmed financial transactions with each block pointing/referring to the previous one forming a chain in linear and chronological order.

Blockchain is linked list of blocks that may contain a variety of information (not just cryptographic transactions). It is only possible to

add new data organized in blocks. Changing or deleting data already in the chain is not possible.

This decentralised technology enables the participants of a peer-to-peer network to make transactions without the need of a trusted central authority and at the same time relying on cryptography to ensure the integrity of transactions.

Blockchain is a method for storing information on a computer network, which is a constantly growing list of computer records made through a peer-to-peer network called “blocks” linked to each other and coded cryptographically.

Blockhcain will be among the main drivers of the next-generation Internet-decentralized web or web 3



An informal website where the creator posts their personal thoughts, often in the form of a journal. Blog is a contraction of web log. Generally Blogs will include links to other web­sites. Blogs have become very popular and are viewed by many as an easily accessible site for information sharing and acquisition.
BlogosphereThe current state of all information available on blogs and/or the sub-culture of those who create and use blogs.


А group of Internet-connected programmes communicating with other similar programmes in order to perform tasks, often created by malicious hackers. They are used to launch spam e-mail campaigns, denial-of-service attacks or online fraud schemes. Commercial botnets can include as many as tens of thousands of bots.
BotsBots are social media accounts that are operated entirely by computer programs and are designed to generate posts and/or engage with content on a particular platform.

In disinformation campaigns, bots can be used to draw attention to misleading narratives, to hijack platforms’ trending lists and to create the illusion of public discussion and support.

Researchers and technologists take different approaches to identifying bots, using algorithms or simpler rules based on number of posts per day.

Broken internet


Early use of the phrase (circa the mid-1990s) refers to literally breaking the Internet connection of a single device. It also refers to breaking the World Wide Web or the Internet itself, with the implication that it would be impossible or implausible to do so in most ordinary contexts.

A figurative usage of the phrase emerged in the early 2000s. Rather than the Internet or an Internet connection literally breaking, the figurative meaning describes a web server becoming overwhelmed by a surge in organic, non-malicious web traffic. It can also describe a deliberate, malicious attempt to overwhelm a web server, as in a denial-of-service attack or other cyberattack.

In the early 2010s, “break the internet” developed a secondary figurative usage in Internet slang. Similar to “going viral” the slang usage refers to behavior that causes a dramatic increase in web traffic or social media commentary, especially when the behavior was ostentatious or controversial. The phrase was famously used on the November 2014 issue of Paper magazine, titled “Break the Internet” and featuring American celebrity Kim Kardashian on the cover. The magazine was not the first to use the phrase in this sense, but it did popularize it.

CAVEImmersive virtual reality ( CAVE)

The Cave Automatic Virtual Environment ( CAVE) is an Immersive virtual reality i.e. hypothetical future technology that exists today as virtual reality art projects, for the most part. It consists of immersion in an artificial environment where the user feels just as immersed as they usually feel in consensus reality.

Immersive is providing, involving, or characterized by deep absorption or immersion in something (such as an activity or a real or artificial environment).

Immersive virtual reality environment is where projectors are directed to between three and six of the walls of a room-sized cube. The name is also a reference to the allegory of the Cave in Plato’s Republic in which a philosopher contemplates perception, reality and illusion.


CEF DigitalCEF Digital

CEF Digital refers to the part of the Connecting Europe Facility that suppports the deployment of digital infrastructure, i.e. Digital Service Infrastructures (DSIs) and Broadband networks. This part is covered by a regulation on trans­European networks in the area of telecommunication infrastructure and has a budget of €1.14 billion, out of which €170 million are for broadband activities, while €970 million are dedicated to DSIs.

Chatbots or Virtual agent


Chatbots or Virtual agent

A chatbot or virtual agent is a computer generated, animated, artificial intelligence virtual character that serves as an online customer service representative.

Computer Vision tasks include methods for acquiring, processing, analysing and understanding digital images, and extraction of high-dimensional data

from the real world in order to produce numerical or symbolic information, e.g. in the forms of decisions.


Collective Awareness PlatformsCollective Awareness Platforms for Sustainability and Social Innovation (CAPS) ICT systems leveraging the emerging “network effect” by combining open online social media, distributed knowledge creation and data from real environments (“Internet of Things”) in order to create awareness of problems and possible solutions requesting collective efforts, enabling new forms of social innovation. The Collective Awareness Platforms are expected to support environmentally aware, grassroots processes and practices to share knowledge, to achieve changes in lifestyle, production and consumption patterns, and to set up more participatory democratic          processes.
Commission Work Programme 2020


Commission Work Programme 2020

Throughout this  year and the decade ahead, our Union has a unique opportunity to lead the transition to a fair, climate-neutral, digital Europe. This twin ecological and digital transition will affect us all: every country, every region, every person. It will cut across every part of our society and economy. But for it to be successful, it must be just and inclusive for all. The European Union can only fully grasp the opportunities the twin transitions will bring if we draw on all of our strengths and our diversity. In doing so, we must always continue to fight for equality, uphold our values and defend the rule of the law.

As we set about delivering on our ambitious agenda, our compass will be the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. In this spirit, we will put the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals at the heart of our policymaking. They will guide our work across all sectors, both in our internal and external action, and will show our commitment to sustainable development at home and abroad. As part of this, we will refocus the European Semester by integrating the Sustainable Development Goals and put forward our approach to the overall governance and implementation of the goals.




 Сommons is the cultural and natural resources accessible to all members of a society, including natural materials such as air, water, and a habitable earth. These resources are held in common, not owned privately. Commons can also be understood as natural resources that groups of people (communities, user groups) manage for individual and collective benefit. Characteristically, this involves a variety of informal norms and values (social practice) employed for a governance mechanism. Commons can be also defined as a social practice of governing a resource not by state or market but by a community of users that self-governs the resource through institutions that it creates


Connected TVConnected TV (smart TV, hybrid TV)

Integration of the Internet and the Web features into television sets and set-top boxes, as well as the technological convergence between computers and these television sets /set-top boxes.

All devices, including mobile devices, which enable access to linear and non-linear media services, over-the-top services and other applications on one and the same device or screen, thereby bringing together the world of broadcasting and the world of the internet.Devices that can be connected to the Internet. In a broader sense, the term refers to technical solutions that bring linear TV and the Internet world closer together, e.g. TV sets with added internet connectivity, set-top boxes delivering audio-visual content ‘over-the-top’, audio-visual services provided via tablet computers or smartphones.


Connecting Europe Facility (CEF)


Connecting Europe Facility (CEF)

The Connecting Europe Facility (CEF) is a European investment mechanism aimed at supporting the development of high-performing, sustainable and efficiently interconnected trans­European networks in the field of energy, telecommunications and transport. In the context of the next multi-annual financial framework (MFF) 2014-2020, the CEF has an overall budget of €29.3 billion to invest in those fields.

An EU infrastructure programme supporting the establishment of transport infrastructure, energy infrastructure and digital infrastructure. The total budget available for the period 2014-2020 is €33 billion.

Connecting Europe Facility Digital Services Infrastructure (CEF-DSI)

Digital Services Infrastructure (DSI or CEF- DSI) refers to the part of the CEF funding that

would support public interest digital service infrastructure such as electronic health records, electronic identification and electronic procurement.


Content providerContent provider: a user who has submitted information that is, or that has been, stored at his or her request by a hosting service provider



Content services


Content services

Any service aimed at providing content to the users including web objects (text, graphics and scripts), downloadable objects (media files, software, documents).


(Online) intermediary service(Online) intermediary service: digital service that consist of transmitting or storing content that has been provided by a third country, the E-commerce Directive distinguishes three types of intermediary services: mere conduit (transmitting of data by an internet access provider), caching (i.e. automatically making temporary copies of web data to speed up technical processes) and hosting.DSA



It signifies the coming together of consumer devices such as the telephone, television and personal computer underpinned by digital technologies.

In general, convergence is a coming together of two or more distinct entities or phenomena. Convergence is increasingly prevalent in the IT world; in this context the term refers to the combination of two or more different technologies in a single device. Taking pictures with a cell phone and surfing the Web on a television are two of the most common examples of this trend.

Convergence may influence consumers to accept new technologies. According to some studies, people who aren’t computer literate are more likely to embrace the Internet, video-on-demand, and so on if they can — at least initially — access these technologies through their televisions.

The result of digital technologies whereby information (voice, text, audio and video) can be converted into digital form and transmitted through different networks and accessed from different end-user terminals. The result is the convergence    of         ICT,     media  and telecommunications industry services. Applied to the audio-visual sector, convergence relates to the progressing merger between online and broadcast content. The practical result is online content on the TV screen and broadcast content on the PC, mobile phone or tablet.


Country of origin principle


Country of origin principle

The rule that an audiovisual media service must only be regulated by the Member State where its provider is established, as defined by the Audiovisual Media Services Directive.

Only exceptionally can a receiving Member State limit reception or retransmission of services, following the procedure foreseen in the AVMSD ,for example when the service breaches domestic rules on the protection of minors or hate speech. The principle applies to both linear and on-demand audiovisual media services.


Critical Information InfrastructuresCritical Information Infrastructures (CII) There is no globally shared definition of Critical Information Infrastructures (CII). In its Green Paper on a European Programme for Critical Infrastructure Protection (EPCIP), the European Commission captured the concept of CII as being all “ICT systems that are critical infrastructures for themselves or that are essential for the operation of critical infrastructures (telecommunications, computers/software, Internet, satellites, etc.)”. In 2008, the OECD defined CII as “those interconnected information systems and networks, the disruption or destruction of which would have a serious impact on the health, safety, security, or economic well-being of citizens, or on the effective functioning of government or the economy”.


Critical InfrastructureCritical Infrastructure (CI)

An asset, system or part thereof located in Member States which is essential for the maintenance of vital societal functions, such as health, safety, security, economic or social well­being of people, and the disruption or destruction of which would have a significant impact in a Member State as a result of the failure to maintain those functions.


Critical Internet Resources


Critical Internet Resources

Stability, security and ongoing functioning of the Internet depend on Critical Internet Resources and their management, including the root name servers, the backbone structures, the Domain Name System and Internet Protocols. Critical Internet resources are managed by various entities, without any common governance approach.

There are several issues related to Critical Internet resources which need to be addressed in order to protect freedom of expression and information (Article 10, ECHR). These resources often have transboundary implications. There are various risks of damage to Internet infrastructure such as mismanagement, cyber attacks or other malicious acts, or technical accidents.


Cyber security


Cyber security

Cyber security commonly refers to the safeguards and actions available to protect the cyber domain, both in the civilian and military fields, from those threats that are associated with or that may harm its interdependent networks and information infrastructure. Cyber security strives to preserve the availability and integrity of the networks and infrastructure and the confidentiality of the information contained therein. The term cyber security also covers prevention and law enforcement measures to fight cybercrime.


Cyber security policy


Cyber security policy

It provides a secure and reliable digital environment based on, and designed to guarantee the protection and preservation of freedoms and respect for fundamental rights online, as laid down in the EU Charter and Article 16 TFEU, in particular the rights to privacy and data protection while psying specific attention to the protection of children online.


Cyber security strategy


Cyber security strategy

The EU Cybersecurity plan to protect open internet and online freedom and opportunity.




A term originated by the author William Gibson in his novel. The word Cyberspace is currently used to describe the whole range of information resources available through the computer network.





Cybernetic organism is a being with both organic and biomechatronic body parts. The term cyborg is not the same thing as bionic, biorobot or android; it applies to an organism that has restored function or enhanced abilities due to the integration of some artificial component or technology that relies on some sort of feedback. While cyborgs are commonly thought of as mammals, including humans, they might also conceivably be any kind of organism.

Cyborgology- Augmented reality

Dark adsDark ads are advertisements that are only visible to the publisher and their target audience.

For example, Facebook allows advertisers to create posts that reach specific users based on their demographic profile, page ‘likes’, and their listed interests, but that are not publicly visible.

These types of targeted posts cost money and are therefore considered a form of advertising. Because these posts are only seen by a segment of the audience, they are difficult to monitor or track.


Dark net


Dark net

The dark web is the World Wide Web content that exists on darknets, overlay networks that use the Internet but require specific software, configurations or authorization to access. The dark web forms a small part of the deep web, the part of the Web not indexed by web search engines, although sometimes the term deep web is mistakenly used to refer specifically to the dark web.

The darknets which constitute the dark web include small, friend-to-friend peer-to-peer networks, as well as large, popular networks like Tor, Freenet, I2P and Riffle operated by public organizations and individuals.


Data- and text-mining



Data- and text-mining

Automated research technique in the digital environment for the purpose of discovering and extracting knowledge from unstructured data. Via keyword searches, lexical analysis tools and mining algorithms, text- and data mining enables researchers to structure the content of scientific (numerical) databases or written publications after their preferences and for their own research purposes. It allows also for retrieving and extracting relevant information and automatically gaining structured results without having to browse each and every scientific work found in a simple keyword search. It is growingly applied in many different areas, from market and business intelligence to science and engineering (bioinformatics, genomics, medicine, education).

Data mining is the process of monitoring large volumes of data by combining tools from statistics and artificial intelligence to recognize useful patterns. Through collecting information about an individual’s activity, disinformation agents have a mechanism by which they can target users on the basis of their posts, likes and browsing history. A common fear among researchers is that, as psychological profiles fed by data mining become more sophisticated, users could be targeted based on how susceptible they are to believing certain false narratives.

Deriving high-quality information from text and data. In order to be ‘mined’, text must be accessed, copied, analysed, annotated and related to existing information and understanding. Even if the user has access rights to the material, making annotated copies can be illegal under current copyright law without the permission of the copyright holder.

Text mining Text mining refers to the use of advanced techniques for automated detection

of patterns in (large) texts.


Data sovereignty


Data sovereignty

Concept that data is kept under the jurisdiction of the state of its owner, to guarantee data protection rights and obligations.


Data value chain


Data value chain

Underlying concept to describe the idea that data assets can be produced by private actors or by public authorities and exchanged on efficient markets like commodities and industrial parts (or made available for reuse as public goods) throughout the lifecycle of datasets (capture, curation, storage, search, sharing, transfer, analysis and visualization). These data are then aggregated as inputs for the production of value- added goods and services which may in turn be used as inputs in the production of other goods and services.




DCAT Application profile for data portals in Europe (DCAT-AP) is a specification based on W3C’s Data Catalogue vocabulary for describing public sector datasets in Europe. Its basic use case is to enable a cross­data portal search for data sets and make public sector data better searchable across borders and sectors. This can be achieved by the exchange of descriptions of data sets among data portals.

The specification of the DCAT-AP was a joint initiative of DG CONNECT, the EU Publications Office and the ISA Programme. The specification was elaborated by a multi­disciplinary Working Group with representatives from 16 European Member States, some European Institutions and the US.


Deep fakesDeep fakes is the term currently being used to describe fabricated media produced using artificial intelligence.

By synthesizing different elements of existing video or audio files, AI enables relatively easy methods for creating ‘new’ content, in which individuals appear to speak words and perform actions, which are not based on reality.

This type of synthetic media is used ore frequently in disinformation campaigns, as these techniques become more sophisticated.


Deep web


Deep web

Not to be confused with Dark web.

The deep web, invisible web, or hidden web are parts of the World Wide Web whose contents are not indexed by standard web search-engines. The opposite term to the deep web is the “surface web”, which is accessible to anyone/everyone using the Internet. Computer-scientist Michael K. Bergman is credited with coining the term deep web in 2001 as a search-indexing term.

The content of the deep web is hidden behind HTTP forms and includes many very common uses such as web mail, online banking, private or otherwise restricted access social-media pages and profiles, some web forums that require registration for viewing content, and services that users must pay for, and which are protected by paywalls, such as video on demand and some online magazines and newspapers.

The content of the deep web can be located and accessed by a direct URL or IP address, but may require a password or other security access to get past public-website pages.


Digital by default


Digital by default

Public services should be easy to use, when possible delivered in digital form, while still enabling other channels for those who are disconnected by choice or necessity.


Digital Champions


Digital Champions

Appointed by EU Member States following a request from President Barroso (14 February 2012). The primary task of a Digital Champion is to work with citizens, communities and businesses to exploit the growth potential of the digital economy. They can do this by helping individuals to enhance their IT skills, by ensuring that the public sector becomes more efficient and customer-friendly and by helping businesses to embrace new technologies which will allow them to be more productive and competitive at home and across borders. By ensuring regular contact between the Champions, the European Commission provides a platform to discuss and compare action at grass-roots level, and mobilises citizens and businesses to take advantage of the digital economy.


Digital commons


 Digital commons are a form of commons involving the distribution and communal ownership of informational resources and technology. Resources are typically designed to be used by the community by which they are created.

Examples of the digital commons include wikisopen-source software, and open-source licensing. The distinction between digital commons and other digital resources is that the community of people building them can intervene in the governing of their interaction processes and of their shared resources.

The digital commons provides the community with free and easy access to information.


Digital divide


Digital divide

An economic inequality between groups, broadly restricted, in terms of access to, use of, or knowledge of information and communication technologies (ICT).

The term ‘digital divide’ is most commonly used to define the gap between those individuals and communities that have access to the information technologies and those that do not. Although there are several reasons for this ‘digital divide’, the most important is the lack of an adequate broadband infrastructure. From the regional point of view, the degree of urbanisation is an important factor for access to and use of ICTs. Internet penetration remains thus much lower in thinly populated areas throughout the European Union.


Digital Economy


Digital Economy

refers to an economy that is based on digital computing technologies, although we increasingly perceive this as conducting business through markets based on the internet and the World Wide Web. The digital economy is also sometimes called the Internet Economy, New Economy, or Web Economy. Increasingly, the digital economy is intertwined with the traditional economy, making a clear delineation harder.


Digital ERA


Digital ERA

Seamless online space for the circulation of knowledge and technology. The objective of Digital ERA is to make it possible that all researchers in Europe could benefit from Digital science.


Digital Europe



Digital Europe

“Digital Europe” Program for the period 2021- 2027. It will have a significant positive impact both on the competitiveness of European industry on global markets and on the improvement of the quality of life of European citizens. The overall objective of the Digital Europe Program is to support the digital transformation of the European economy and society and to deliver its benefits to European citizens and businesses. It consists of five interconnected pillars (key

areas of action) – high-performance computing technologies, artificial intelligence, cybersecurity, development of advanced digital skills and widespread use of digital technologies in the economy and society


Digital exclusion


Digital exclusion

A term that is used to characterize a gap between those citizens who use or have access to telecommunications technologies (e.g., telephones, computers, the Internet) and those who do not.


Digital infrastructureDigital infrastructure is the basis and is a necessary prerequisite for the digital transformation. The digital infrastructure includes both electronic communication networks and devices, equipment, systems, protocols, data, places for their storage, etc. tools that enable connectivity, information exchange, data sharing, service delivery, application usage, process management, and more.

The digital infrastructure is the core of the digital ecosystem.

Digital infrastructure is one that consists of infrastructures for digital services and broadband networks

Digital Infrastructure is an infrastructure that includes IXPs, DNS service providers , top-level domain name registries.

Digital Innovation Hubs


Digital Innovation Hubs

Digital innovation hubs are ecosystems that consist of SMEs, large industries, startups, researchers, accelerators, and investors. They aim to create the best conditions for long-term business success for all involved.

Digital libraries


Digital libraries

For the purposes of the CIP ICT PSP work programme, digital libraries are organised collections of digital content made available to the public by cultural and scientific institutions (libraries, archives and museums) and private content holders (e.g. publishers) in the EU Member States or Associated Countries. They can consist of all kinds of “physical” material that has been digitised (books, audiovisual or multimedia material, photographs, documents in archives, etc.) and material originally produced in digital format.

Digital media ecosystem


Digital media ecosystem

Personalization of content, multi interactivity and connectivity of various smart devices created digital media ecosystem. It engages users to actively participate, to fully participate and communicate in a new way in an environment where content follows them wherever they are, whatever device they use, helping them and entertaining them.

Digital Science


Digital Science (also Open Digital Science) is about the way research is carried out, disseminated, deployed and transformed by digital tools, networks and media. These issues are often also covered by concepts such as e¬science, e-infrastructures, open science, science2.0, web science, or internet science. Digital science work in CONNECT aims to have a holistic perspective that covers considerations of all these aspects, and reflects the need for policy efforts in order to harness the potential of Digital science for European society and its economy.

Digital science relies on the combined effects of technological development and cultural change towards collaboration and openness in research. Digital science makes scientific processes more efficient, transparent and effective by new tools for scientific collaboration, experiments and analysis and by making scientific knowledge more easily accessible.

Digital Service Infrastructure (DSI)


Digital Service Infrastructure (DSI)

EU-level infrastructure to deliver networked services electronically, typically over the internet, providing trans-European interoperable services for citizens, businesses and/or public authorities. A DSI is composed of a core service platform and generic services. The core service platform is an EU-level central hub to which national infrastructures are linked through gateway services called generic services. National infrastructures of Member States are so to say interconnected via the core service platform and thereby create a European DSI.


Digital Single Market


Digital Single Market

The Digital Single Market could be defined operationally as “an area where individuals and businesses can seamlessly access and exercise online activities under conditions of fair competition, irrespective of their nationality or place of residence.”

The notion of Digital Single Market does not represent a new concept outside the traditional concepts of the Treaties. It primarily reflects new developments and the “reality” of the Single Market that is undergoing digital transformation. The overall objective should be a “single market ready for the digital age”, where the free movement of goods, persons, services and capital is enhanced by digital technologies.


Digital Terrestrial TelevisionDigital Terrestrial Television (DTTV or DTT)

The purposes of digital terrestrial television is to

provide more capacity than analog, provide better quality picture, and to lower operating costs for broadcast and transmission. A terrestrial implementation of digital television (DTV) technology uses an aerial to broadcast to a conventional television antenna (or aerial) instead of a satellite dish or cable television connections.

Technological evolution and advance from analogue terrestrial television, which broadcasts land based (terrestrial) signals. The purpose of digital terrestrial television, similar to digital versus analogue in other platforms such as cable, satellite, telecoms, is characterized reduced use of spectrum and more capacity than analogue, better-quality picture, and lower operating costs for broadcast and transmission after the initial upgrade costs.


Digital transformationDigital transformation is characterised by a fusion of advanced technologies and the integration of physical and digital systems, the predominance of innovative business models and new processes, and the creation of smart products and services/ЕС.

Digital transformation can refer to anything from IT modernization (for example, cloud computing), to digital optimization, to the invention of new digital business models. The term is widely used in public-sector organizations to refer to modest initiatives such as putting services online or legacy modernization. Thus, the term is more like “digitalisation” than “digital business transformation.”

Digital transformation refers to the customer-driven strategic business transformation that requires cross-cutting organizational change as well as the implementation of digital technologies.

Digital transformation is not about  being digital or digital products or services. It’s a combination of transformative digital technologies, tools, processes and most importantly people (culture and mindset) truly transforming the way you do business today. Technology of course is a critical piece but digital transformation is not just about that. It is not a reaction to your business environment today but rather a proactive approach to anticipating the next big opportunity. This is why digital transformation is usually tied to innovation


Digital transitionDigital transition is an improvement to  existing technologies, tools or processes
DigitalisationDigitalisation is the use of digital technologies to change a business model and provide new revenue and value-producing opportunities. Digitalisation leads to digital business, digital transformation requires digital business and digitisation.

Digitalisation is the process of leveraging digitisation to improve business processes.

For example: Jane scans a signed NDA and saves this scan as a PDF. She then uploads this PDF to the cloud so she can access the NDA anytime and anywhere.

Digitalisation is the use of digital technologies to change a business model and provide new revenue and value-producing opportunities; it is the process of moving to a digital business.

There is no digitalisation and no digital transformation without digitisation (of paper and processes)

Digitalisation means turning interactions, communications, business functions and business models into (more) digital ones which often boils down to a mix of digital and physical as in omnichannel customer service, integrated marketing or smart manufacturing with a mix of autonomous, semi-autonomous and manual operations


DigitisationDigitisation is the process of changing from analog to digital form

Digitisation is the process of converting information from a physical format into a digital one.

For example: John scans a signed NDA and saves this scan as a PDF. He then saves this PDF to his C drive.

The digitisation of a process is impossible. It is the automation of a process by digitising information and injecting technology for the purpose of automation

Digitisation, or digital transition, has been an ongoing process of taking analogue information such as paper documents and converting them into digital formats such as web pages, online catalogues or electronic papers. Simply put, digitisation is converting anything into digits. This has benefitted industries like education, medicine, mass communication and more because it allows companies to handle documents more efficiently.

Digitisation and digitalisation are two conceptual terms that are closely associated and often used interchangeably in a broad range of literatures. There is analytical value in explicitly making a clear distinction between these two terms.


DisinformationDisinformation is false information that is deliberately created or disseminated with the express purpose to cause harm. Producers of disinformation typically have political, financial, psychological or social motivations.

Disinformation is when false information is knowingly shared to cause harm.


Disruptive technology


Disruptive technology

A disruptive technology is one that displaces an established technology and shakes up the industry or a ground-breaking product that creates a completely new industry.

Harvard Business School professor Clayton M. Christensen coined the term disruptive technology. In his 1997 best-selling book, “The Innovator’s Dilemma,” Christensen separates new technology into two categories: sustaining and disruptive. Sustaining technology relies on incremental improvements to an already established technology. Disruptive technology lacks refinement, often has performance problems because it is new, appeals to a limited audience and may not yet have a proven practical application. (Such was the case with Alexander Graham Bell’s “electrical speech machine,” which we now call the telephone.)



Dormant account

Dormant account is a social media account that has not posted or engaged with other accounts for an extended period of time.

In the context of disinformation, this description is used for accounts that may be human- or bot- operated, which remain inactive until they are ‘programmed’ or instructed to perform another task




Doxing is the act of publishing private or identifying information about an individual online, without his or her permission. This information can include full names, addresses, phone numbers, photos and more.

Doxing is an example of malinformation, which is accurate information shared publicly to cause harm.

Due diligence


Due diligence

an investigation of a business or person prior to signing a contract, or an act with a certain standard of care. It can be a legal obligation, but the term will more commonly apply to voluntary investigations

Diagnostic review, financial and legal analysis.


DSA Digital Services Act will reinforce the single market for digital services and help provide smaller businesses with the legal clarity and level playing field they need. Protecting citizens and their rights, not least the freedom of expression, will be at the core of our efforts.

Digitalisation and cybersecurity are two sides of the same coin. To further strengthen overall cybersecurity in the Union, the Commission will review the Directive on Security of Network and Information Systems. We will also put forward initiatives to make digital finance more robust against cyber-attacks, including a Proposal on Crypto Assets.

Enhancing Europe’s digital leadership and strategic autonomy will require a strengthening of our industrial and innovation capacity. To support this, the Commission will propose a comprehensive new Industrial Strategy for Europe that supports the ecological and digital transition and upholds fair competition. This will be backed up with a dedicated SME Strategy that will make it easier for small and medium-sized businesses to operate, scale up and expand. Specific attention will be paid to the media and audio-visual sectors.

Making markets work better for consumers, business and society will be essential in making Europe fit for the digital age. We can only reap the benefits of our unique single market if the rules are respected on the ground. The Commission will therefore report on the Single Market Barriers and propose a Single Market Enforcement Action Plan to ensure better implementation and enforcement. We also need to ensure fair competition and the level playing field in the global market. A White Paper on an Instrument on Foreign Subsidies will reflect on possible new tools to address the distortive effects of foreign subsidies in the single market. This will help prepare the ground for a legislative proposal in 2021.

Services provided via online platforms have opened up new opportunities for labour, such as flexibility for working time. However, there is growing uncertainty on a number of issues for platform-based work. These include employment status, working conditions, access to social protection, and access to representation and collective bargaining. We will therefore propose ways next year to improve the labour conditions for platform workers.

Investment in digital skills will be essential to address a widening skills gap and changing work patterns, as well as to regain European mastery and ownership of key technologies. Coupled with improving digital literacy, this will be the driver of the updated Digital Education Action Plan. A Communication on the Future of Research and Innovation and the European Research Area will look at how we can better pool resources, as well as deepen our research, innovation and knowledge capacity.

Europe must strive for excellence in digital infrastructures, such as powerful 5G networks, super- and quantum computing, blockchain and secure cloud capacities. We need to invest more in strategic capacities that provide us with the means to develop and use digital technologies at scale, in line with European values.


DVBDigital Video Broadcasting (DVB)

An internationally accepted open standard for digital television.






E-infrastructure is the term used for the technology and organisations that support research undertaken in this way. It embraces networks, grids, data centres and collaborative environments, and it can include supporting operations centres, service registries, single sign- on, certificate authorities, training and help-desk services. Most importantly, it is the integration of these that defines e-infrastructure.

The comprehensive ICT infrastructure that is needed to enable the complex, multi-disciplinary and globalised practice of modern science. It capitalises on advances in ICT and integrates hardware for computing, data and networks, observatories and experimental facilities, and an interoperable suite of software and middleware services and tools. Such an infrastructure is necessary in science today to address the need to store, analyse and process unprecedented amounts of (heterogeneous in general) data and information, to enable world-scale scientific collaborations and the access to and sharing of scientific resources and information regardless of their type and location in the world.

e-Infrastructures address the needs of European researchers for digital services in terms of networking, computing and data management.

e-Infrastructures provide digital-based services and tools for data- and computing-intensive research in virtual and collaborative environments. They foster the emergence of Open Science, i.e. new working methods based on the shared use of digital tools and resources across different disciplines and technology domains as well as sharing of results and an open way of working together.

e-Infrastructures are key in future development of research infrastructures, as activities go increasingly online and produce vast amounts of data.


eSkillseSkills, electronic skills

The ability to make use, develop and apply Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). The European e-Skills Forum defines the three main Information and ICT categories: practitioner skills, user skills, e-Business skills.


ETSIEuropean Telecommunications Standardization Institute (ETSI)

The European Telecommunications Standards Institute is a non-profit organization officially recognized by the European Union as a European Standards Organization. It produces globally-applicable standards for Information and Communications Technologies.

Independent, non-profit, standardization organization in the telecommunications industry (equipment makers and network operators) in Europe, with worldwide projection. ETSI has been successful in standardizing GSM cell phone system, TETRA professional mobile radio system, and Short Range Device requirements including LPD radio.


EUEuropean Union (EU)

The European Union is an economic and political union of member-states. The EU operates through a system of supranational independent institutions and intergovernmental negotiated decisions by the member-states.

An unique international body signifying economic, monetary and to a larger extent political union brought about through voluntary cooperation among sovereign European states. It is the most successful example of regional cooperation.


EU Charter of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms


EU Charter of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms

A document adopted with the purpose to mainstream fundamental rights more into the administrative activities of the Union. Endorses right, liberties and principles for the EU citizens and residents in the EU law.




The Pan-European dialogue on Internet governance is an open platform for informal and inclusive discussion and exchange on public policy issues related to Internet Governance.

Europe 2020


Europe 2020

A 10-year strategy proposed by the European Commission on 3 March 2010 for advancement of the economy of the European Union. It aims at “smart, sustainable, inclusive growth” with greater coordination of national and European policy. It follows the Lisbon Strategy for the period 2000-2010. The strategy identifies five headline targets the European Union should take to boost growth and employment:

-to raise the employment rate of the population aged 20-64 from the current 69% to at least 75%,

-to achieve the target of investing 3% of GDP in R&D in particular by improving the conditions for R&D investment by the private sector, and develop a new indicator to track innovation, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by at least 20% compared to 1990 levels or by 30% if the conditions are right, increase the share of renewable energy in final energy consumption to 20%, and achieve a 20% increase in energy efficiency,

-to reduce the share of early school leavers to 10% from the current 15% and increase the share of the population aged 30-34 having completed tertiary from 31% to at least 40%, to reduce the number of Europeans living below national poverty lines by 25%, lifting 20 million people out of poverty.


Europe fit for the digital ageEurope fit for the digital age

The digital transition is already having a significant impact on every aspect of our lives and careers. It opens up new opportunities to connect, communicate, solve societal issues and do business. The European Union has all the assets to make the most of this transformation and become a digital leader across the board. It must move first on the future technologies with the most potential, while ensuring the European approach is human, ethical and values-based.

A new European Data Strategy will enable us to make the most of the enormous value of non-personal data as an ever-expanding and re-usable asset in the digital economy. The Commission will also put forward a White Paper on Artificial Intelligence to support its development and uptake and ensure full respect of European values and fundamental rights. Making the most of artificial intelligence will help us find new solutions to old problems and reduce the time required to perform a broad range of tasks. However, we need to establish an ecosystem of trust to ensure it develops within clearly defined ethical boundaries.


European Data Infrastructure


European Data Infrastructure

The European Data Infrastructure is one of the three pilars of the European Cloud initiative – Building a competitive data and knowledge economy in Europe. By combing world-class supercomputing capability with high-speed connectivity and leading-edge data and sofware services for science, industry and the public sector, the European Data infrastructure will allow fully unlocking the value of big data.


European integration


European integration

The process transition from community to union extending cooperation in foreign and security policy, home affairs and justice, immigration and policing and establishing the notion of the European Union citizenship. European integration is a mechanism to escape nationalism.


European Library


European Library

An online portal designed to meet the needs of the research community worldwide which offers quick and easy access to the collections of the 48 National Libraries of Europe and leading European Research Libraries.

European Multi Stakeholder Platform (MSP) on ICT standardisation


European Multi Stakeholder Platform (MSP) on ICT standardisation

Set up by Commission Decision COM(2011) 349, the MSP advises the Commission on matters relating to the implementation of ICT standardisation policy, including the work programme for ICT standardisation, priority­setting in support of legislation and policies and identification of specifications developed by global ICT standards development organisations. The MSP is composed of representatives of national authorities of Member States and EFTA countries, the European and international ICT standardisation bodies and the Stakeholder organisations representing industry, small and medium-sized enterprises, consumers and other societal stakeholders. The Platform is co-chaired by DGs ENTR and CONNECT.

European Standard (EN)


European Standard (EN)

A standard adopted by some European Standartization Organization that obliges the EU member-states upon its introduction as an identical national standard to abolish its contradictory national standards.

A standard that has been adopted by one of the three recognized European Standardisation Organisations (ESOs): CEN, CENELEC or ETSI. In the context of some directives or regulations, voluntary European Standards can provide presumption of conformity with a legal provision.


Ex-ante regulation


Ex-ante regulation

A process in which market analysis is being conducted for the future as an evaluation is being made, as well as a proposal for the future development of the competition of the corresponding market and measures are imposed to achieve an effective competition.


Ex-post regulation


Ex-post regulation

A process that analyses the current state of competitiveness in a certain market and if necessary specific measures are imposed.


Fact-checkingFact-checking is the process of determining the truthfulness and accuracy of information.

“Fact-checking” can mean two different things in journalism. Traditionally, fact-checkers proofread and verify factual claims made by reporters in their articles. This genre of fact-checking evaluates the solidity of the reporting, double-checks facts and figures, and serves as an overall round of quality control for a news outlet’s content before publication (ex-ante control). Fact-checking (in the context of information disorder) is the process of determining the truthfulness and accuracy of official, published information such as politicians’ statements and news reports and represents ex-post control over texts. “Ex post” fact-checking concentrates primarily (but not exclusively) on political ads, campaign speeches and party manifestos.


Fake followersFake followers are anonymous or imposter social media accounts created to portray false impressions of popularity about another account.

Social media users can pay for fake followers as well as fake likes, views and shares to give the appearance of a larger audience.

For example, one English-based service offers YouTube users a million “high-quality” views and 50,000 likes for $3,150


Fake free servicesFake free services Fake Free Newport campaign seeks to work in partnership with good, honest businesses that have invested in the city so that together we make a stand against the sale of counterfeit goods/UK.

Fake news


Fake news

Fake news is a type of yellow journalism or propaganda that consists of deliberate disinformation or hoaxes spread via traditional print and broadcast news media or online social media. The term is also at times used to cast doubt upon legitimate news from an opposing political standpoint, a tactic known as the lying press. The false information is then often reverberated as misinformation in social media, but occasionally finds its way to the mainstream media as well. Fake news is written and published usually with the intent to mislead in order to damage an agency, entity, or person, and/or gain financially or politically, often using sensationalist, dishonest, or outright fabricated headlines to increase readership, online sharing, and Internet click revenue. In the latter case, it is similar to sensational online “clickbait” headlines and relies on advertising revenue generated from this activity, regardless of the veracity of the published stories. Intentionally misleading and deceptive fake news differs from obvious satire or parody, which is intended to amuse rather than mislead its audience.

The relevance of fake news has increased in „post-truth“ politics. For media outlets, the ability to attract viewers to their websites is necessary to generate online advertising revenue. If publishing a story with false content attracts users, this benefits advertisers and improves ratings. Easy access to online advertisement revenue, increased political polarization, and the popularity of social media, primarily the Facebook News Feed, have all been implicated in the spread of fake news, which competes with legitimate news stories. Hostile government actors have also been implicated in generating and propagating fake news, particularly during elections.

During and after his presidential campaign and election, Donald Trump popularized the term “fake news” when he used it to describe the negative press coverage of himself. In part as a result of Trump’s use of the term, the term has come under increasing criticism, and in October 2018 the British government decided that it will no longer use the term because it is “a poorly- defined and misleading term that conflates a variety of false information, from genuine error through to foreign interference in democratic processes.”


FETFuture and Emerging Technologies (FET) The incubator and pathfinder for new ideas and themes for long-term research that challenges current and mainstream thinking. Its mission is to promote high risk research offset by potential breakthrough with high technological or societal impact. Building on the success of the FET programme under FP7, FET constitutes a key element of the Excellent Science priority of Horizon 2020.


GFirst generation  refers to the first generation of wireless cellular technology (mobile telecommunications). These are the analog telecommunications standards that were introduced in the 1980s and continued until being replaced by 2G digital telecommunications. The main difference between the two mobile cellular systems (1G and 2G), is that the radio signals used by 1G networks are analog, while 2G networks are digital.

Second generation is short for second-generation cellular technology. Three primary benefits of 2G networks over their predecessors were that phone conversations were digitally encrypted;  2G introduced data services for mobile, starting with SMS text messages. 2G technologies enabled the various networks to provide the services such as text messages, picture messages, and MMS (multimedia messages).

Third generation  refers to the third generation of mobile telephony (that is, cellular) technology. 3G finds application in wireless voice telephony, mobile Internet access, fixed wireless Internet access, video calls and mobile TV.

Fourth generation of mobile telecommunications technology, succeeding 3G and preceding 5G. A 4G system, in addition to the usual voice and other services of 3G, provides mobile ultra-broadband Internet access, for example to laptops with USB wireless modems, to smartphones, and to other mobile devices. Even though 4G is a successor technology of 3G, there can be signification issues on 3G network to upgrade to 4G as many of them were not built on forward compatibility.

Fifth generation mobile networks. It refers to the next major phase of mobile telecommunications standards beyond the current 4G/IMT-Advanced standards. 5G does not describe any particular specification in any official document published by any telecommunication standardization body. 5G will be the enabler of new applications that will be possible thanks to very high speeds and low latency, such as high definition video everywhere and augmented reality where the digital and physical world will become one. We will take seamless connectivity for granted, wherever we live, work, gather, or travel.

Through the new NR/new radio  standard, 5G will provide the needed capacity to make data traffic jams a thing of the past. Thanks to this new standard, 5G will evolve around enhanced Mobile Broadband, i.e. with faster access rate – about 10 times more than 4G – and helping to handle the vast increase of mobile traffic at an affordable cost.  5G will bring to the end user a seamless connectivity and will improve the mobile broadband experience in various circumstances (e.g. at the stadium, on aircraft or train). However, 5G will be more than faster mobile Internet speeds. It has the potential to transform our economic sectors.

Sixth Mobile Communications Technology

Even before the 5G mobile communications standard was fully deployed, the eyes of many started to turn towards the next generation: the 6G wireless communications system.

If 6G is to be able to meet the needs of the mobile communications when it is launched and for some while afterwards, then it will need to use up to the minute technology – technology which is not available at the moment.

However the has been talk that 5G will be the last mobile standard released as such: this will be updated to provide the required performance improvements and in this way it overcomes the huge investment required to launch a completely new system. If this idea catches hold then 6G will not be named as such, but instead it will be a major improvement in 5G performance to meet the needs of the ongoing mobile communications or wireless communications users.

What can be said is that 6G, or the sixth-generation wireless communications system is the successor to 5G cellular technology. It is anticipated that 6G networks will be able to use higher frequencies than 5G networks and this will enable higher data rates to be achieved and for the 6G network to have a much greater overall capacity. A much lower latency levels will almost certainly be a requirement.

Overall it is expected that 6G mobile technology will be to support one micro-second or even sub-microsecond latency communications, making communications almost instantaneous.



Gate keepers


Gate keepers

The ones who guard and influence the information flow.





A combination of hardware and software that connects networks or network devices.


GDPRGDPR/ General Data Protection Regulation REGULATION (EU) 2016/679 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 27 April 2016 on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data, and repealing Directive 95/46/EC (General Data Protection Regulation)


Gender mainstreaming


Gender mainstreaming

Gender mainstreaming has been embraced internationally as a strategy towards realising gender equality. It involves the integration of a gender perspective into the preparation, design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies, regulatory measures and spending programmes, with a view to promoting equality between women and men, and combating discrimination.

The public policy concept of assessing the different implications for women and men of any planned policy action, including legislation and programmes, in all areas and levels. Mainstreaming essentially offers a pluralistic approach that values the diversity among both men and women.

The concept of gender mainstreaming was first proposed at the 1985 Third World Conference on Women in Nairobi, Kenya. The idea has been pushed in the United Nations development

community. The idea was formally featured in 1995 at the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing, China, and was cited in the document that resulted from the conference, the Beijing Platform for Action.



H2020Horizon 2020 (H2020)

The financial instrument implementing the Innovation Union, a Europe 2020 flagship initiative aimed at securing Europe’s global competitiveness. Running from 2014 to 2020 with nearly a €80 billion budget, the EU’s new programme for research and innovation is part of the drive to create new growth and jobs in Europe





A person who illegally accesses or enters another person’s computer or company’s computer system to obtain information or to steal money.


Harmful behavioursHarmful behaviours/activities online: while some behaviours are prohibited by the law at EU or national level (see definitions for illegal content and illegal goods), other behaviours could potentially result in diverse types of harms, without being illegal as such. A case in point are coordinated disinformation campaigns which may lead to societal impact or individual harm under certain conditions. Some content can also be particularly damaging for vulnerable categories of users, such as children, but not for the general public. Such notions remain, to certain extent, subjective. DSA


Harmful interference


Harmful interference

Interference which endangers the functioning of the radio navigation services or otherwise seriously degrades, obstructs or repeatedly interrupts a radio service operating in accordance with the applicable provisions.


Harmonised StandardHarmonised Standard

A European standard elaborated on the basis of a request from the European Commission to a recognised European Standards Organisation to develop a standard that provides solutions for compliance with a legal provision. Compliance with harmonised standards provides a

presumption of conformity with the corresponding requirements of harmonisation legislation. The use of standards remains voluntary. Within the context of some directives or regulations voluntary European standards supporting implementation of relevant legal requirements are not called “harmonised standards









Hate speech


Hate speech

“Hate speech” shall be understood as covering all forms of expression which spread, incite, promote or justify racial hatred, xenophobia, antisemitism or other forms of hatred based on intolerance, including: intolerance expressed by aggressive nationalism and ethnocentrism, discrimination and hostility against minorities, migrants and people of immigrant origin.


Hybrid TV


Hybrid TV

A leading content service provider that delivers the broadest portfolio of on-demand entertainment, digital television access and salient services across multiple screens in the home.


ICTInformation and Communication Technologies (ICT)

Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and the Internet are one of the key drivers for building a competitive knowledge-based and innovation-based economy for innovative and inclusive provision of a high quality of life to citizens. ICT policy is defined as a sectoral policy with a horizontal effect because the effects and impact of its implementation cover all socio-economic sectors.

Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) are of the main drivers of changes within society and businesses.

The development and use of Information and communication technologies (ICTs) is in order to create jobs and generate economic growth; they provide better goods and services for all; build on the greater empowerment which digital technologies can bring in order to create a better world, now and for future generations.

Information and communication technologies (ICT) are often used as an extended synonym of information technologies (IT), but are a more specific concept that emphasizes the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications (telephone lines and wireless signals), computers as necessary corporate software, middleware, storage and audiovisual systems that enable users to access, store, transmit and manipulate information.

Digital technologies have enormous potential to benefit our everyday lives and tackle social challenges. The Digital Agenda focuses on ICTs capability to reduce energy consumption, support ageing citizens’ lives, revolutionises health services and deliver better public services. ICTs can also drive forward the digitisation of Europe’s cultural heritage providing online access for all


IETFInternet Engineering Task Force (IETF)


Illegal contentIllegal content: any information which is not in compliance with Union law or the law of a Member State concerned DSA


Illegal hate speechIllegal hate speech: the following serious manifestations of racism and xenophobia that must constitute an offence in all EU countries:

(a)public incitement to discrimination, violence or racial hatred in respect of a group of persons or a member of such a group defined by reference to colour, race, religion or national or ethnic origin; (b) public condoning, for a racist or xenophobic purpose, of crimes against humanity and human rights violations;

(c) public denial of the crimes defined in Article 6 of the Charter of the International Military Tribunal appended to the London Agreement of 8 April 1945 insofar as it includes behaviour which is contemptuous of, or degrading to, a group of persons defined by reference to colour, race, religion or national or ethnic origin;

(d) public dissemination or distribution of tracts, pictures or other material containing expressions of racism and xenophobia;

(e) participation in the activities of groups, organizations or associations, which involve discrimination, violence, or racial, ethnic or religious hatred. DSA


Information disorder


 Information disorder is a complex phenomenon and encompasses the spread of three different types of false information: mis-, dis- and mal-information. The differences between these three types of information are described using the dimensions of harm and falseness: Mis-information is when false information is shared, but no harm is meant. Dis-information is when false information is knowingly shared to cause harm. Mal-information is when genuine information is shared to cause harm, often by moving information designed to stay private into the public sphere. Through various mediums and forms, information disorder has seriously polluted modern communication by contaminating Information.


Information society


Information society

A society in which information in all its aspects plays a crucial role in economic, political and cultural affairs underpinned by the wider use of computer technique and particularly the Internet. Information society is a global society due to the borderless nature of modern communications. Information society has three main characteristics. First, information is used as an economic resource. Secondly, it is possible to identify greater use of information among the general public. People use information more intensively in their activities as consumers The third characteristic of information society is the  development of an information sector within the economy. The function of the information sector is to satisfy the general demand for information facilities and services.

Society with a qualitatively new structure organization and public relations based on global access and use of information and communication networks and services without national geographical or other restrictions on the exchange of information scientific spiritual, cultural and other achievements

Information Society ServiceInformation Society Service: a service ‘normally provided for remuneration, at a distance, by electronic means and at the individual request of a recipient of services’, as defined in Directive (EU) 2015/1535. The definition covers a very large category of services, from simple websites, to online intermediaries such as online platforms, or internet access providers.

Digital service: used here as synonym to an information society service  DSA


Information Society Service eCommerceInformation Society Service eCommerce Information society service, as defined in EU directive 98/34/EC, means any service normally provided for remuneration, at a distance, by electronic means and at the individual request of a recipient of services. It spans a wide range of economic activities taking place on-line, e.g. the selling of goods, offering on-line information or commercial communications, or providing tools that allow for search, access to and retrieval of data. Information Society services also cover services that consist of the transmission of information via a communications network, providing access to a communication network, and hosting information provided by a recipient of a service.





Creation of novel products and approaches, a crucial element of knowledge.

Creating new products and approaches, a crucial element of knowledge.

Innovation is the introduction of a new or significantly improved product (good or service) or production process, a new marketing method or a new organizational method in commercial practice, the organization of workplaces or external links that create market advantages and at the same time increase the competitiveness of companies under Manuel d’Oslo 3e édition © OECD / EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 2005).

Innovation can be seen as an activity, as a process and as a result. Innovation from research and development can be seen as intellectual property products that you can protect and from which you can benefit in the long run in the form of licenses.


International standard


International standard

A standard that is adopted by an international standards organization, or by an international organization operating standards and it is generally valid.





A system of interconnected networks using an Internet Protocol, which allows them to function.

The internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private,

public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope that are linked by a broad array of electronic and optical networking technologies. The internet carries a vast array of information resources and

services, most notably the inter-linked hypertext documents of the World as an independent virtual network.


Internet governance


Internet governance

The development and application by governments, the private sector and civil society,

in their respective roles, of shared principles, norms, rules, decision-making procedures, and programmes that shape the evolution and use of the Internet (working definition of Internet Governance, which was agreed at the 2005 UN World Summit on the Information Society).


Internet intermediaries


Internet intermediaries

Internet service providers, network searching services and social media platforms.

Internet securityInternet security

it is part of computer security / security related not so much to the Internet as to network security insofar as it applies to other applications or operating systems in general. Its purpose is to establish rules and take measures to prevent attacks via the Internet. The Internet is an insecure channel for exchanging information, which carries a high risk of phishing, computer viruses and more.


IoTInternet of Things (IoT)

Dynamic global network infrastructure with self­configuring capabilities based on standard and interoperable communication protocols where physical and virtual “things” have identities, physical attributes and virtual personalities and use intelligent interfaces and are seamlessly integrated into the information network.

A technology and a market development based on the inter-connection of everyday objects among themselves and applications. IoT will enable an ecosystem of smart applications and services, which will improve and simplify EU citizens’ lives.

The Internet of Things (IoT) refers to interconnected devices or systems, often called “smart” devices or “smart” systems. They collect and exchange data and can be monitored or remotely controlled via the Internet, through software on any kind of computers, smartphones or through interfaces like wall-mounted controls.


IPInternet Protocol (IP)

A standard set of rules for sending and receiving data through the Internet and other networks. A protocol used for communicating data across a packet-switched internetwork using the Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP).


ISPInternet Service Provider (ISP)

A company that provides paid Internet service to end users.

ISP Internet Service Provider is a company that provides access to the Internet to organizations and / or individuals. Services provided by Internet providers may include web hosting, e-mail, VoIP (Internet telephony) as many other applications

IXPsInternet Exchange Points IXPs

An Internet Exchange Point is a networking tool that enables the connection of more than two independent autonomous systems primarily to facilitate the exchange of Internet traffic. Via Internet Exchange Point  is performed the connection only of autonomous systems . The connecton through the IXP does not require that the traffic passing through any of the two autonomous systems involved passes through a third autonomous system, nor does it modify or affect this traffic in any other way.

Source:Cyber Security Act

The function of an internet exchange point (IXP) is to interconnect networks. An IXP does not provide network access or act as a transit provider or carrier. Nor does an IXP provide other services unrelated to interconnection, although this does not preclude an IXP operator from providing unrelated services. An IXP exists to interconnect networks that are technically and organisationally separate. The term ‘autonomous system’ is used to describe a technically stand­alone network.

Source: Directive (EU) 2016/1148 on measures to achieve a high level of security of networks and information systems in the Union

An IXP is a place where multiple Internet Service Providers (ISPs) interconnect their respective networks. IXPs are described as an institutional setting for the exchange of traffic where ISPs can voluntarily participate and where they agree to interconnect at a multilateral peering point to exchange their traffic without needing to buy transit from an upstream provider and thus reducing costs as there are usually no payments for the exchange of traffic.

Source: : An Assessment of IP interconnection in the context of Net Neutrality, BEREC Report of 6 December 2012, BoR (12) 130, p. 26.

The European Internet Exchange Association (Euro-IX) has defined an IXP as a “physical network infrastructure operated by a single entity with the purpose to facilitate the exchange of Internet traffic between Autonomous Systems.”


KETKey Enabling Technologies (KET)

KET are knowledge intensive and associated with high R&D intensity, rapid innovation cycles, high capital expenditure and highly skilled employment. They enable process, goods and service innovation throughout the economy and are of systemic relevance. They are multidisciplinary, cutting across many technology areas with a trend towards convergence and integration. KET can assist technology leaders in other fields to capitalise on their research efforts’ (COM(2009)512). The Commission selected the following KET as a priority for Europe: nanotechnology, micro- and nanoelectronics including semiconductors, advanced materials, biotechnology and photonics (COM(2012)341). KET provide indispensable technology bricks that enable a wide range of product applications, including those required for developing low carbon energy technologies, improving energy and resource efficiency, boosting the fight against climate change or allowing for healthy ageing. In 2012, ISTAG produced a report highlighting the role of software technologies, to be considered as a priority KET for Europe.


Knowledge society


Knowledge society

A knowledge society generates, shares and makes available to all members of the society knowledge that may be used to improve the human condition. A knowledge society differs from an information society in that the former serves to transform information into resources that allow society to take effective action while the latter only creates and disseminates the raw data. The capacity to gather and analyze information has existed throughout human history. However, the idea of the present-day knowledge society is based on the vast increase in data creation and information dissemination that results from the innovation of information technologies. The UNESCO World Report addresses the definition, content and future of knowledge societies Knowledge-based society

A knowledge-based society is an innovative and life-long learning society, which possesses a community of scholars, researchers, engineers, technicians, research networks, and firms engaged in research and in production of high- technology goods and service provision. Knowledge is used to empower and enrich people culturally and materially, and to build a sustainable society.


Large online platformsLarge online platforms: online platforms reaching a certain level of users and covering different types of services that are considered to have a particularly important impact and play a distinctive role as ‘gatekeepers’ to the services they provide. Since the present consultation itself inquires about the distinctive features, the impact and the potential measures, which need to be taken in relation to such platforms, this definition should be understood more as a description of possible features that identify large online platforms. DSA


Linear audiovisual media servicesLinear audiovisual media services Audiovisual media services provided by a media service provider for simultaneous viewing of programmes on the basis of a programme schedule.

A linear audiovisual media service (i.e. television broadcast) is provided for simultaneous viewing on the basis of a programme schedule, contrary to a non-linear service (i.e. on-demand service) that will be available at the moment chosen by the user, at his request and on the basis of a catalogue.


MalinformationMalinformation is when genuine information is shared to cause harm, often by moving information designed to stay private into the public sphere. This includes private or revealing information that is spread to harm a person or reputation.


Mass media


Mass media

Socio-cultural institutions that produce and disseminate knowledge, information and entertainment. They channel communication towards a large and undifferentiated audience using the opportunities of technology.





1.The plural form of medium. The various physical environments through which transmission signals pass. Common network media include twisted-pair, coaxial and fiber­optic cable, and the atmosphere (through which microwaves, laser, and infrared transmission occurs).

2. Media (in the new information and communication environment)

encompasses all actors involved in the production and dissemination, to potentially large numbers of people, of content (for example information, analysis, comments, opinions, education, culture, art and entertainment in text, audio, visual, audiovisual or other form) and applications which are designed to facilitate interactive mass communication (for example social networks) or other content-based large- scale interactive experiences (for example online games), while retaining (in all these cases) editorial control or oversight of the contents.


Media ecosystem


Media ecosystem

Uderstood in broad terms to encompass all actors and factors whose interaction allows the media to function and to fulfil their role in society.

Media industry


The media industry can be defined as a varied collection of organisations that share the production, publication and distribution of media content. Examples of media organisations include: BBC. Disney. News.

A business model based on communicating information, and entertainment to a large audience.

Related concepts to media industry: media convergence When audiences use one platform to consume various types of media texts.

media format A media format refers to whether the content is video, audio, print based, or a combination such as a website or video game.

media platform A media platform is where a media text is presented; this can be TV, cinema, computer, games console, digital media player, smartphone, tablet, magazine, or newspaper

media text Any media product such as a TV programme, film, magazine, video game, newspaper, music track or album created for an audience.


Media Literacy


Media Literacy

The capacity to access the media, to understand and critically evaluate different aspects of the media and media content and to create communications in a variety of contexts. Media literacy is an extremely important factor for active citizenship in today’s information society. It is a fundamental skill not only for young generations but also for adults and elderly people, parents, teachers and media professionals.


MemeMeme is an idea or behavior that spreads person to person throughout a culture by propagating rapidly, and changing over time.

The term is now used most frequently to describe captioned photos or GIFs that spread online, and the most effective are humorous or critical of society.

They are increasingly being used as powerful vehicles of disinformation.

reports, indicators have been identified, as well as their baselines and the timeframe in which a pre-set target should be reached.


MicrotargetingMicrotargeting is the strategy used to create highly specific advertisements to narrowly-targeted groups or individuals. Microtargeting is more commonly called online behavioural advertising in advertising and marketing studies, sometimes also called profiling or behavioural target-ing, “political behavioural targeting” (PBT) in political marketing studies, or news personalisation in journalism.


MisinformationMisinformation is when false information is shared, but no harm is meant.
Large online platformsLarge online platforms: online platforms reaching a certain level of users and covering different types of services that are considered to have a particularly important impact and play a distinctive role as ‘gatekeepers’ to the services they provide. Since the present consultation itself inquires about the distinctive features, the impact and the potential measures, which need to be taken in relation to such platforms, this definition should be understood more as a description of possible features that identify large online platforms. DSA


Linear audiovisual media servicesLinear audiovisual media services Audiovisual media services provided by a media service provider for simultaneous viewing of programmes on the basis of a programme schedule.

A linear audiovisual media service (i.e. television broadcast) is provided for simultaneous viewing on the basis of a programme schedule, contrary to a non-linear service (i.e. on-demand service) that will be available at the moment chosen by the user, at his request and on the basis of a catalogue.



Network neutrality

Net /network neutrality

The principle that all electronic communication which passes through a network is treated equally. That all communication is treated equally means that it is treated regardless of (i) content, (ii) application, (iii) service, (iv) device, (v) sender address and (vi) receiver address.

Under the reformed Telecom Rules, national telecoms regulatory authorities will in particular be required to promote “the ability of end users to access and distribute information or run applications of their choice”. The Connected Continent proposal tabled in September 2013 includes provisions related to net neutrality that define clear traffic management rules.

The principle of net neutrality is an important component of the right of access to the Internet. It requires that ISPs and governments treat traffic and data on the Internet equally regardless of the nature of the sender, user, type of data, content and platform. ISPs and governments are prohibited from prioritizing the transmission of data, from blocking content or from slowing down access to certain applications.


Network resilience


Network resilience

The term resilience is used differently by different communities. In general engineering systems, fast recovery from a degraded system state is often termed as resilience.

In computer networking: ‘resiliency’ is the ability to provide and maintain an acceptable level of service in the face of faults and challenges to normal operation.


Networking media


Networking media

Material (either cable or air) by which signals are sent from one network device to another.


New IP


New IP

The Next-generation Network and Protocol System for Digital Networked Industry and Society

For this, the ITU-T Network 2030 Focus Group  established in July 2018, has been working on building consensus in the industry on the next evolution of Internet technologies, fit for purpose in 2030 and beyond.

New IP is driven by Huawei and its subsidiary, Futurewei.


New media


Emerging formats and platforms for media content that have developed since the rise of the Internet. The ‘new media’ include:Websites, Blogs,Vlogs, Online games, Podcasts, Apps.

New media is on-demand content accessed via the internet through digital devices, such as personal computers and smartphones.

New media content can involve interactive elements such as audience engagement and feedback.


Non-linear audiovisual media services


Non-linear audiovisual media services

Audiovisual media services provided by a media service provider for the viewing of programmes at the moment chosen by the user and at his individual request on the basis of a catalogue of programmes selected by the media service provider.


Online advertising 

Online advertising:

• intermediated programmatic advertising though real-time bidding : in this type of online ad placement, a bidding process takes place during milliseconds while the content is loading and the advertising space available is matched with ads bidding for the attention of the user according to its characteristics.

• Private marketplace auctions (PMP): similar to the real-time bidding process, PMPs march demand and offer from a selected group an advertisers with a selected group of publishers and typically do not involve the same advertising intermediaries

• Programmatic advertising with guaranteed impressions (non-auction based): closer to the ‘traditional’ manner of advertising, this refers to impressions of advertisements directly negotiated between publishers and advertisers

• Behavioural advertising (micro-targeting): a broad category of advertising (potentially covering either of the above systems) where advertisements are served to a user based on their particular profile

• Contextual advertising: a broader category of advertising where, in contrast with behavioural advertising, the ads displayed are selected based on the context of the navigation (e.g. content of a website browsed by a user)


Online platform ecosystemsOnline platform ecosystems: group of online platforms operated by the same or closely related corporate entity/entities. Since the present consultation itself inquires about the distinctive features, the impact and the potential measures, which need to be taken in relation to such online platform ecosystems, this definition should be understood more as a description of possible features that identify online platform ecosystems.



Online Platforms


Online Platforms

Online platforms (e.g. search engines, social media, e-commerce platforms, app stores, price comparison websites) are playing an ever more central role in social and economic life: they enable consumers to find online information and businesses to exploit the advantages of e­commerce. Online platforms share key characteristics including the use of information and communication technologies to facilitate interactions (including commercial transactions) between users, collection and use of data about these interactions, and network effects which make the use of the platforms with most users most valuable to other users. Platforms have proven to be innovators in the digital economy. But they are also raising concerns. Some platforms can control access to online markets and can exercise significant influence over how various players are remunerated.


DSA Online platforms: a variety of ‘hosting service providers’ such as search engines, social networks, content-sharing platforms, app stores, marketplaces, ride-hailing services, online travel and accommodation platforms. Such services are generally characterised by their intermediation role between different sides of the market – such as sellers and buyers, accommodation service providers, or content providers – and oftentimes intermediate access of user-generated content.


Open data


Open data

Common resource comprising public data collected by public, private or non-governmental organizations in the interest of society which is freely available for use and re-use. Open data can generate value through re-use of a specific type of data – public sector information, sometimes also referred to as government data such as geographical information, statistics, weather data, data from publicly funded research projects, and digitised books from libraries.

Free and widely available data for consultation and reuse, including reuse for commercial

purposes, with a view to increasing transparency and stimulating economic activity. Applies mostly, but is not strictly limited to government data. An EU Directive on the re-use of public sector information (Directive 2003/98/EC, known as the ‘PSI Directive’) entered into force on 31 December 2003; a revision of that Directive was adopted in June 2013. In June 2013, the EU also endorsed the G8 Open Data Charter and, with other G8 members, committed to implementing a number of open data activities in the G8 members’ Collective Action Plan.

There is a review of the Re-use of Public Sector Information Directive


Personal data


Personal data

Any information relating to an identified or identifiable individual.





Computer system with hardware and software that distinguish it significantly from other computer systems. Specific software is usually developed for it.


Platform neutrality


Platform neutrality

The principle allows users to have full access to all features and websites on the Internet, in the same form regardless of the device they use to log on to the web.



Policy making process


Policy making process

The process of making decisions. It consists of four stages policy initiation, policy formulation, policy implementation and policy evaluation.




Research-focus standardization (in general referred to as “pre-standardization”) is a necessary
instrument to attract a critical mass of researchers to participate in standardization process.
The phase/process intends to bridge the research-to standardization gap and is generally
referred to as the pre-standardization phase/process.
Pre-standardisation like procedures conducted in IRTF/ISOC, ITU-T Focus Group, IEEE-
SA Industry Connection Program and ETSI Industry Specification Groups facilitates to
bridge the gaps between research and standardisation.
Pre-standardisation examples: white papers, protocols, peer reviewed papers, best practice
guides, Round Robins)
Round-robin (RR) is one of the algorithms employed by process and network schedulers in
computing. Round-robin scheduling can be applied to other scheduling problems, such as
data packet scheduling in computer networks. It is an operating system concept.The name of
the algorithm comes from the round-robin principle known from other fields, where each
person takes an equal share of something in turn.





A major concern of Internet users that largely involves the sharing of personally identifiable information, which includes name, birth date, Social Security number and financial data, for example.

EU Data Protection Directive (also known as Directive 95/46/EC) is a directive adopted by the European Union designed to protect the privacy and protection of all personal data collected for or about citizens of the EU, especially as it relates to processing, using, or exchanging such data. Directive 95/46/EC encompasses all key elements from article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights, which states its intention to respect the rights of privacy in personal and family life, as well as in the home and in personal correspondence. The Directive is based on the 1980 OECD “Recommendations of the Council Concerning guidelines Governing the Protection of Privacy and Trans-Border Flows of Personal Data.”


Privacy by default


Privacy by default

Citizens and businesses must be assured that when interacting with public administrations, privacy and data protection rules are respected. All digital public services must be designed with full respect for the protection of personal data. Meaningful consent and explicit opt-in mechanisms are central for the sharing and reuse of personal data, in addition to users’ access,

control and the possibility for corrections, including withdrawal of consent





Propaganda is true or false information spread to persuade an audience, but often has a political connotation and is often connected to information produced by governments.

It is worth noting that the lines between advertising, publicity and propaganda are often unclear  



R&D  is based on systematic creative work to increase the amount of knowledge, including knowledge about people, culture and society, as well as the use of this amount of knowledge for new applications. R&D covers basic and applied research as well as experimental development.

The level of R&D is of special importance for the development of innovations and the implementation of innovation activity. R&D is at the heart of the innovation process.

R&D refers to the activities that a business performs in order to improve its products and processes or create new ones. As a result of research, innovations are born, which are the basis for the development of competitiveness and the improvement of people’s quality of life.




Governing by rule – the process of adoption and enforcement of rules

A regulation is a legislative act of the European Union that becomes immediately enforceable as law in all member states simultaneously. Regulations can be distinguished from directives which, at least in principle, need to be transposed into national law by means of a variety of legislative procedures depending on their subject matter.


Regulatory policy


Regulatory policy

Regulatory policy includes all policies aimed at

improving the development and application of rules and other instruments public authorities use to influence the behavior of (private or public) actors in the public interest.


Research and innovation


Research and innovation

Research and innovation contribute directly to our level of prosperity and the well-being of individuals and society in general. The main aim of policy in the field of research and technological development is to establish the European Union as a leading knowledge-based economy.


Re-use of public sector informationRe-use of public sector information (PSI)

Principle that all public information that the state institutions and municipalities collect should be getting free on the Internet. This principle is the basis of the updated EU Directive on reuse of public sector information (also known as open data Directive) adopted by the European Commission (EC). Exceptions should only be for the secret information related to national security and for the personal data of people.




Data sandbox

Big data sandbox

Test environment, experimental environment; test environment for large data sets


SDGsSustainable Development Goals /SDG Decade of Action:Digital technologies are moving all 17 SDGs from vision to action. Together, let’s use these technologies to protect our planet and improve people’s lives the world over. In this decade of action, let’s transform the digital revolution into a development revolution,” ITU Secretary-General, Houlin Zhao, said in a video message.




Standards Developing Organizations (SDOs)

Whereas, the term national standards body (NSB) generally refers to the one-per-country standardization organization that is that country’s member of the ISO, the term standards developing organization (SDO) generally refers to the thousands of industry- or sector-based standards organizations that develop and publish industry specific standards. Some economies feature only an NSB with no other SDOs. Large economies like the United States and Japan have several hundred SDOs, many of which are coordinated by the central NSBs of each country (ANSI and JISC in this case). In some cases, international industry-based SDOs such as the IEEE and the Audio Engineering Society (AES) may have direct liaisons with international standards organizations, having input to international standards without going through a national standards body. SDOs are differentiated from standards setting organizations (SSOs) in that SDOs may be accredited to develop standards using open and transparent processes.


Search engine


Search engine A system through which we find information on the Internet. The search engine user makes a content request meeting specific criteria (key word). As a result, he/she receives a list of records that meet this criterion fully or partially.
Semantic Web


Semantic Web

An extension of the WWW that allows machines to understand the content they process and to propose useful applications, relying on specific standards (e.g. RDF, OWL). This can provide 1) precise definitions of the relationships between objects of interest (e.g. identifying a certain person as the CEO of a certain company) 2) information     on        the       networks         of concepts.Semantic Web technologies help to reduce costs and increase efficiency since machines are capable of reading and interpreting information and reusing knowledge already developed by others.

data made to enable quick access.



Smart Cities


Smart Cities

A city becomes smart in virtue of strategically leveraging ICT infrastructures and applications – itself or by creating the right conditions for others to do so – towards better delivery of benefits – directly and indirectly – to its citizens. Mentioned benefits include making a city more sustainable and greener through less energy consumption and more of it from renewable sources, improving the efficiency of transport and public services in general, rendering a city’s administration more responsive and engaging with the citizenry, better and more affordable healthcare as well as general age-friendliness and issues of urban inclusion. A developed urban area that creates sustainable economic development and high quality of life by excelling in multiple key areas; economy, mobility, environment, people, living, and government. Excelling in these key areas can be done so through strong human capital, social capital, and/or ICT infrastructure.


Smart contracts

Smart contracts: software which executes the transfer of an asset upon fulfilment of pre-determined conditions (“if …then”). Smart contracts can transpose the terms of a written contract or they can exist stand-alone without a written contract. DSA
Social capital


Social capital

Associated with social and cultural factors that result in wealth, successful communities and good governance. Trust is particularly seen as an important precondition for wealth creation together with impersonal market forces


Social cohesion


Social cohesion

The capacity of society to cope with disparities and polarization and to ensure welfare to all its members.


Social engineeringSocial engineering (information disorder) refers to all techniques aimed at talking a target into revealing specific information or performing a specific action for illegitimate reasons.
Social Media


Social Media

A group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, and that allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content. It employs mobile and web-based technologies to create highly interactive platforms via which individuals and communities share, co-create, discuss, and modify user-generated content.

It is not simply the use of Web 2.0 platform but the use of social media implies the development of new forms of collaboration and information management within the enterprises as well as helping employees, customers and suppliers to collaborate, to innovate, to share, and to organize knowledge and experiences.

The following are the main social media communication platforms and tools for enterprises:

Social networks or websites are applications based on internet technologies that enable users to connect by creating personal information profiles, share interest and/or activities, share ideas, invite others to have

access to their profile and create communities of people with common interests.

Blogs: A blog is a website or a part of a website, that is updated frequently, either owned by individuals, interest groups of individuals or corporate (in the current context it is the blog of the enterprise and not other blogs to which

employees contribute). An update (called an entry or a post) is usually quite short and readers can respond, share, comment or link to the entry online.

Blogs can be used either within an enterprise (corporate blog) or forcommunicating with customers, business partners or other organisations.

Content communities offer the possibility of sharing media content between users. Photo and video services / Podcasting: A podcast (or non-streamed webcast) is a series of digital media files (either audio or video in various file format e.g. .aiff, .wav, .midi etc for the former and .mov, .avi etc for the latter) that are released episodically. The mode of delivery differentiates podcasting from other means of accessing media files over the internet, such as direct download, or streamed webcasting. Presentation sharing websites offer the possibility to share presentations, documents and professional videos over the internet (share publicly or privately among colleagues, clients, intranets, networks etc). These websites offer the possibility to upload, update

and access presentations and/or documents. Very often, presentation sharing websites are linked to blogs and other social networking services or websites.

Microblogging refers to the posting of very short updates about oneself. It is in contrast to long-form blogging, where there are usually at least a few hundred words. For example, in the context of microblogging services Tweets (Twitter) are text-based posts of up to 140 characters displayed on the user’s profile page.

Wiki: A wiki is a website that allows the creation and editing of any number of interlinked web pages via a web browser using a simplified markup language or a WYSIWYG text editor. Wikis are typically powered by wiki software and are often used collaboratively by multiple users. Examples include community websites, corporate intranets, and knowledge management systems.

Social media influencersSocial media influencers (influencer marketing) Social media have enabled the emergence of an entirely new profession and genre of celebrity – social media influencers.  The rise of ad blockers and the decrease of ad click through rate have contributed to the rise of social media influencers. Social media influencers can be seen as a lighthouse for many citizens/customers/voters in an area of abundance of information sources. Gladwell provided three elementary types of influencers –connectors (the people in a community who knowlarge numbers of people and who are in the habit of making introductions), maves (“people we rely upon to connect us with new information”) and salesmen (“persuaders”, charismatic people with powerful negotiation skills). These social media influencers categories may overlap with social bots categories.
Social network


Social network

A dedicated website or other application which enables users to communicate with each other by posting information, comments, messages, images, etc.


Social networking


Social networking

Social networking is the practice of expanding the number of one’s business and/or social contacts by making connections through individuals. While social networking has gone

On almost as long as societies themselves have existed, the unparalleled potential of the Internet to promote such connections is only now being fully recognized and exploited, through Web­based groups established for that purpose, the use of dedicated websites and applications to interact with other users, or to find people with similar interests to one’s own.

SplinternetSplinternet/ balkanisation , cyber-balkanisation

transformation of the global network into many local networks with artificial borders created through national legislation by the state regulation of the Internet. This is an expression of the geopolitical nature of the opposition of the states in the information sphere.

The term “Balkanization of the Internet” arises from the political term “Balkanization”, which is used to mean the disintegration of parts.





Stakeholders are groups or individuals who can affect or be affected by the achievements of a business

Typical stakeholders that define most businesses are customers, employees, suppliers, communities, and shareholders or other financiers. For some purposes, some companies also consider a broader group that includes governments, media, competitors, non­governmental organisations (NGOs) and others. Business is about managing key stakeholder relationships.





A document that has been created by means of consensus and it has been approved by a recognized authority which defines for a common or repetitive application rules, guidelines or features for activities or their results to achieve an optimal order in a certain number of consequences.





The act of carefully watching someone or something especially in order to prevent or detect a crime.

It is the monitoring of the behavior, activities, or other changing information, usually of people for the purpose of influencing, managing, directing, or protecting them. This can include observation from a distance by means of electronic equipment (such as CCTV cameras), or interception of electronically transmitted information (such as Internet traffic or phone calls); and it can include simple, relatively no- or low-technology methods such as human intelligence agents and postal interception. The word surveillance comes from a French phrase for “watching over” (“sur” means “from above” and “veiller” means “to watch”)

Surveillance is very useful to governments and law enforcement to maintain social control, recognize and monitor threats, and prevent/investigate criminal activity.


Terms of reference


Terms of reference

Terms of reference show how the scope will be defined, developed, and verified. They should also provide a documented basis for making future decisions and for confirming or developing a common understanding of the scope among stakeholders. In order to meet these criteria, success factors/risks and restraints should be fundamental keys.


Traditional media


‘Traditional media’ or ‘old media’ are the media that existed before the internet, like radio, print and television.
Transformative digital technologiesTransformative digital technologies – IOT, Artificial Intelligence, Machine learning, Blockchain, Predictive analytics, Cloud, Augmented reality etc.

Tools – Sensors, Wearables, 3D/4D printing, Robotics, UAVs etc.

Processes –  Lean Six Sigma, Total Quality management (TQM), Lean Manufacturing etc.

Wearable technology, wearables, fashion technology, tech togs, or fashion electronics are smart electronic devices (electronic device with micro-controllers) that can be incorporated into clothing or worn on the body as implants or accessories

An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) (or uncrewed aerial vehicle, commonly known as a drone

Lean Six Sigma is a process improvement methodology designed to eliminate problems, remove waste and inefficiency, and improve working conditions to provide a better response to customers’ needs.


UserUser: any natural or legal person who is the recipient of a digital service DSA


VerificationVerification is the process of determining the authenticity of information posted by unofficial sources online, particularly visual media.

It emerged as a new skill set for journalists and human rights activists in the late 2000s, most notably in response to the need to verify visual imagery during the ‘Arab Spring’.





Transmission of video images in real time.





A situation in which an joject/person is very close to being something real in the computer world.





A website or simply site, is a set of related web pages served from a single web domain. A website is hosted on at least one web server, accessible via a network such as the Internet or a private local area network through an Internet address known as a Uniform resource locator. All publicly accessible websites collectively constitute the World Wide Web.


WSISWorld Summit on Information Society

The World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) was a pair of United Nations-sponsored conferences about information, communication and, in broad terms, the information society that took place in 2003 in Geneva and in 2005 in Tunis. One of its chief aims was to bridge the so-called global digital divide separating rich countries from poor countries by spreading access to the Internet in the developing world.

Facebook Comments